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Professional arborists

Tree Surgeon Terms and Phrases

Crown Reduction

The removal of growth from every branch within the tree canopy forming a smaller, natural shape. Reductions are carried out in the form of percentages based upon 100% being the entire canopy. For example to perform a 25% crown reduction would be to make the canopy of the tree smaller by a quarter.

Crown Raise/Lift

Removing selected lower branches of a tree making the canopy of the tree higher. This would usually be performed to allow low level light penetration. For example to crown raise a tree to 3.5m would mean removing all the lower branches below this height so that the canopy begins at 3.5m.


Coppicing is a form of husbandry used mainly in woodland management. It involves the removal of a tree to ground level enabling it to produce new growth from the stump. Certain species of tree react better to coppicing than others such as hazel, willow, ash.


Pollarding is often carried out on trees in roadside areas, and those on riversides, but this method of tree management can also be adopted in the domestic garden. It is the removal of the entire canopy of a tree, pruning back to its main branches to form a skeletal style structure. The tree then shoots from the pruning points to re-form a canopy. This process is repeated throughout the life of the tree and is often used to make the canopy of large trees smaller and more manageable.


The cultivation and care of trees.


Arborist by definition is an individual who is trained in the art and science of planting, caring for, and maintaining individual trees.


Foundation Degree.

Conservation Area

Conservation areas are designated by local planning authorities as areas of special architectural or historic interest, the character or appearance of which it is desirable to preserve or enhance. If you intend to carry out work on a tree within a conservation area, then a formal application must be made to the relevant local council. A period of six weeks from the council receiving the application must be left. The council will either grant or refuse permission within this time period.


TPO stands for Tree Preservation Order and is a part of town and country planning in the United Kingdom. A TPO is made by a local planning authority (usually a local council) to protect specific trees or a particular area, group or woodland from deliberate damage and destruction. TPOs can prevent the felling, lopping, topping, uprooting or otherwise willful damaging of trees without the permission of the local planning authority. Work on a tree that is protected by a TPO needs to be applied for to the council. Permission needs to be given by the local authority before any work can be carried out. There are serious penalties if work is carried out without consent.

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